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Carnaval

Carnaval Inhaltsverzeichnis

Carnaval, op. 9 ist ein aus 23 kurzen Charakterstücken bestehender Klavierzyklus von Robert Schumann. Die Erstausgabe erschien im Verlag Breitkopf & Härtel mit einer Widmung für den polnischen Geiger Karol Lipiński. Carnaval bezeichnet: Carnaval-Longdrink, Longdrink; Carnaval, Op. 9, eine Komposition von Robert Schumann, siehe Carnaval (Schumann); den Karneval in. Carnaval, op. 9 ist ein aus 23 (bzw. 22 erklingenden) kurzen Charakterstücken bestehender Klavierzyklus von Robert Schumann. Die Erstausgabe erschien. Übersetzung Französisch-Deutsch für carnaval im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung Spanisch-Deutsch für carnaval im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.

Carnaval

Übersetzung Spanisch-Deutsch für carnaval im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Carnaval de %%datos_comarca%%. Alhama, dessen Verlust der maurische König in einer Romanze betrauerte, war schon in der römischen Epoche sehr. Übersetzung Französisch-Deutsch für carnaval im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.

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Claudia Leitte - Carnaval ft. Pitbull (Official Music Video)

Because of the anonymity offered by the costumes, rank and position were no longer important and one could freely express his opinion and mock anything and anyone.

In particular, the nobility , clergy and the wealthy citizens were mocked and ridiculed. This tradition is still reflected in contemporary parades and at the Brabantian tonproaten and Limburgish buutereednen , the speakers subjects include mocking and ridiculing the local administration.

The catholic church, being the most powerful and influential organisation at the time, had to suffer most during carnaval. All kinds of sacred traditions and rules were ridiculed during the feast.

A donkey would be put on the altar during the ezelsmis donkey's mass after which a civilian dressed as a priest staged a mass.

During all the prayers, the " amen " would be replaced by the donkey imitation "ia, ia, ia". A dance called the polonaise was done during which people did not follow the pastor with the hand on the shoulder, but with the nose at the bottom.

Also celebrated on 28 December is the now forgotten feast of the massacre of the innocents , commemorating the infanticide in Bethlehem.

On this day the children were given the power for one day and turned it against the church. The choirboys put the clergy on a cart full of manure , and then let them pass through the village.

Often this gave the mass the opportunity to pelt the church ministers with shit, a phenomenon in slightly modified version to be found now in the spreading confetti from the carnaval floats.

However, in the church attacked the feast furiously. The theologians in Paris felt that the carnaval was out of control, issued a number of prohibitions and drafted a letter, which included the following:.

The theologians conclude their letter stating that they do not even want to mention the worst things that take place during the carnaval.

The role of the lower clergy, however, gradually got taken over by laymen. That is not to say that therefore there was no longer shrove Tuesday or fools bishops, and donkey popes and donkey bishops.

The laity started to play the roles of the dignitaries they ridiculed. Later this practice developed into real titles and the roles of " Prins " or " Vorst " came into use.

The feasts with jesters were in Flanders and the Netherlands very widespread. Later the "feasts of fools" are taken over by urban carnaval associations, such as the shipping companies and guilds.

The celebrations became more expensive every year, so expensive that even the Prins or Vorst candidate often fled the city to prevent being elected.

Cities even increased their taxes to finance these highly elaborate feasts. Also early as the Late Middle Ages charivaris occurred during the carnaval more than usual.

The oldest-known Dutch carnaval images date from in Den Bosch. They are depicted in several paintings by 15th-century painter Jheronimus Bosch.

In the sixteenth century, the excessive, public and massive carnaval celebration from the Middle Ages came to an end. The council of Trent — and the reformation caused a complete reverse in attitude towards the carnaval.

Protestantism became the dominant religion north of the rivers Meuse and Rhine. In the areas that cover today the provinces of Limburg and North Brabant the Catholic religion remained dominant.

In the part of the Netherlands that after the reformation became predominantly Protestant, the public shrovetide celebration disappeared from the streets.

The new Protestant clergy found the riotous Catholic carnaval sinful. In the north, the feast quickly eradicated and also in the south the carnaval was restricted.

Shrove Tuesday was interpreted as a " romish " superstition and prohibited to ban it out. This is clear from the fact that a new ban had to be enacted every year.

These games were held in both the 18th and in the 19th century. In Venlo these games were banned in , but in Wijnandsrade this tradition was held till It was only since , the beginning of the French era , that Den Bosch would officially allow celebrating carnaval again.

Also charivaris , which were folk customs that may already existed before , were more often held around the carnaval time. Like in other European countries, the two main purposes of the charivari in Europe were to facilitate change in the current social structure and to act as a form of censure within the community.

The goal was to enforce social standards and to rid the community of socially unacceptable relationships that threatened the stability of the whole.

By the charivari's the community would punish and correct fellow citizens by public mocking and humiliation for unwanted behavior like adulterous relationships, men who let themselves be deceived by their wives, men who abused their wives, men who were not dominant in the marriage, widows who wished to remarry, women who wish to marry outside the social group like a partner from a neighboring village and other violators of social norms.

The victims were subjected to humiliating processions with noise and music through the village, forced to do embarrassing or hard labor or their possessions and house would be marked, damaged and soiled.

This girl was chosen because of "bad" behavior: often a maid that was sexually used by her master. A large doll to depict the girl was shown on the Sunday of the carnaval after church.

The men sang mocking songs on the town square around the doll. Not just "premarital sexual active" and "adulterous" girls were mocked, also girls could get criticized because of their appearance or language, for turning down suitors, for the extent to which she was kind or kept faithful to her friends.

During the carnaval the men would wear masks and go from pub to pub to perform a play and mocking songs, while the paintings were displayed as an illustration.

This kind of "political charivaris" never questioned the authority of the government itself, but were intended to denounce abuse of power and corruption by the government.

The heyday of the political charivaris was between and In North Brabant there were various forms of community charivaris around carnaval which till still often occurred.

Only since the beginning of the 19th century, when the Netherlands was under French rule, the carnaval feast started to revive in the south of the Netherlands.

Some of the best-known traditions, including carnival parades and masquerade balls and masquerading, were recorded in medieval Italy.

The carnival of Venice was for a long time the most famous carnival although Napoleon abolished it in and only in the tradition was restored.

In the early 19th century the weakened medieval tradition started to revive as well in the German Rhineland and Southern Netherlands.

In the first modern carnaval parade took place in Cologne , Rhineland , Germany. Without denying that the current carnaval contains several recognizable aspects of the past, the feast as it is held today is relatively young.

Carnaval as it's known today began in the postwar period. Before that, it was repressed as a result of the strong protestant influence in the country.

With the exception of some places in Limburg and North Brabant , where in the nineteenth century the organization of medieval Carnaval celebrations was reviving again, the vast majority of the carnaval associations is established after World War II.

In the s, with a few exceptions, the feast was still confined to the southern provinces of Limburg and North Brabant , where the majority of the population was Catholic.

During the s, the relatively strong demarcation between the catholic south on one side and the Calvinist west and north on the other side of the Netherlands started to diminish.

According to cultural anthropologist Jef de Jager,. The upcoming protest generation saw that its desire for looser manners was honored, at least during the Carnaval days.

Even mild criticism of the political and social system, until then painstakingly smothered by the authorities, suddenly appeared to be possible Carnaval became to the South, what the Provo was to the North [of the Netherlands].

What actually happened was exactly the opposite of what had happened during the Middle Ages : a new morality was tested, not to investigate what is not allowed, but to investigate what is allowed.

Hence, De Jager believes, Carnaval was one of the developments that gave impetus to the South to more informal manners, individualization and sexual revolution and then to ontzuiling depillarisation and secularization.

The Carnaval exceeded in the s the border that is formed by " the Great Rivers " the Maas , the Waal and the Rhine , lost all religious connotations and became a secular feast.

Also the practice of lent became rapidly extinct in the Netherlands in the s and s. The south of the Netherlands, which is mostly Roman Catholic by tradition is now largely secular in practice.

After the modern feast of carnaval lost the association with Christian religion as a result of the rapid secularization in the Netherlands in the second half of the 20th century, the carnaval became more celebrated in parts of the country which were Protestant by tradition.

At the end of the twentieth century there were carnaval associations in all the provinces of the Netherlands which are active in organizing the celebrations.

As a result, the carnaval in these parts of the country usually lasts only one day with the emphasis on role dressing and feasting, without the social criticism, parades and months of prelude.

Carnaval officially lasts from Sunday to Tuesday, but the current practice is that often there are numerous Carnaval festivities between 11 November and the actual feast, especially in the last weeks before carnaval.

Sometimes there are also on Ash Wednesday some carnaval activities held. The post-Christian carnaval consist of several days consecutively drinking, feasting, role-dressing, social criticizing and mocking, parades and music.

Also specific carnaval traditions and customs which may vary from town to town are an important part of the modern carnaval. The ridiculing and socially critical aspects of the carnaval are mostly emphasized during the parades.

Southern schools often dedicate the Friday afternoon before the actual feast to the carnaval. Children are invited to come role-dressed to school, sometimes the schools even organize a school parade and choose a school prince.

In the Netherlands, the start of the season is celebrated in almost every carnaval celebrating town with some kind of ceremony.

The reason for this date is the number 11, which is traditionally the number of fools and madmen. In the Netherlands there are two kinds of Carnaval: the Rhenish carnaval and the Burgundian carnaval.

The Carnavals are in many ways similar, but because of their origins and unique traditions they are also easy to distinguish from each other.

The Rhenish variant is usually celebrated in Limburg , the Burgundian variant in the north, mid and west of North Brabant , Gelderland , Twente and in parts of Zeeland and in Utrecht.

The east of North Brabant where East Brabantian is spoken has manifestations of both types of carnaval and forms an overlap region of the two types of carnaval, but is often classified as Burgundian.

The Rhenish carnaval in the Netherlands is a derivative of the Cologne carnaval. The Burgundian carnaval originated from the traditional eating feasts during which people would ridicule one another during the carnaval in the Southern Netherlands nowadays Belgium , Luxembourg and the Dutch Provinces North Brabant and Limburg , especially in the Duchy of Brabant.

Carnaval is not only a feast of eating and drinking, but also serves as social role reversal feast which allows people to behave outside the usual acceptable social norm.

People will dress up as a character, much as seen during the eve of the Christian feast of All Hallows that appears in the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon culture, which though has developed from a different origin.

Masks and face paint are often used in combination with the costumes. The old tradition of wearing masks is becoming more and more replaced by the use of face paint, which makes it easier to drink and eat during the feasting.

The costumes allow people to change their identity and role in society for a few days without being judged for it by their fellowman during and after the carnaval.

This also applies to feasting and drinking and other licentious behaviour which can be attributed to the temporary identity one takes on, rather than to the person him or herself.

The function of this is to mirror and exaggerate daily life, to denounce and raise awareness of every day events and put life in perspective.

A proper mocking carnaval costume does not simply insult or ridicule, but makes actually a valuable point. When not used to make a point, carnaval costumes offer an opportunity to temporarily change identity and express oneself freely.

Traditionally the role dressing serves three major purposes: [1]. This element of the carnaval is already known in the medieval carnaval.

The changing of positions in power provide an opportunity to criticize the authorities without fear of retribution and are part of the role reversal function of the carnaval.

Since numerous societies were established which organized carnaval balls. In fact, these associations took on many activities which the guilds used to organize in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period before the French occupation and are in that sense their successors.

More than Burgundian, the Rhenish carnaval celebrations are dominated by carnaval associations. These associations, of which there are sometimes many per city or village with each their own prince and council of eleven, organize their own festivities for both members and non-members of the association during the carnaval.

The associations choose a prince and entourage and even though a Burgundian town can have dozens of carnaval associations, there is only one prince per city or village.

Cologne had already started organizing carnaval by an association in , followed in by Düsseldorf and Mainz in In Limburg the carnaval organized by an association was as common as in the German Rhineland.

Momus was probably the first carnaval association in the Netherlands and was founded in in Maastricht , followed by Jocus in the city of Venlo in Momus name derives from the Greek god Momus.

Momus is the Greek god of mockery and criticism. When in Venlo a sorority founded the carnaval association, they could thus choose between Comus Greek god of festivity, anarchy and chaos and Jocus Roman god of wit and raillery.

Momus is not the oldest existing carnaval association because it had faded out before the Second World War in After the war the carnaval in Maastricht was organized by the Tempeleers.

In many places, large carnaval parades are held with large floats, organized and created by the carnaval associations. The parades have usual a particular theme whereby authorities are ridiculed and criticized, events of the past year are represented and which are often politically incorrect and used to make people think outside the box or function as a mirror to the society.

Also groups or individuals on foot will participate and fill the gaps between the carnaval wagons during the parade. Fanfares and marching bands will provide for typical carnaval music.

The floats are built by carnaval associations, but also often by independent groups of friends, families, neighbourhoods or other clubs.

A massive ship-looking wagon is shown in every carnaval parade which is manned by the prince, his entourage and the council of eleven of the city it is held or of the carnaval association that organized the parade and is usually the last float at the parade.

Carnaval parades often start at In that case they will start at 11 past the hour as well. Usually a competition will be held to choose the most outstanding contribution to the parade with separate categories for floats, groups on foot and individual participants.

Although a procession usually takes from a starting point to a point of arrival, it actually roams from nowhere to nowhere.

What only matters is the social binding during the parade. Along the route, the crowd forms a very essential part of the parade. The crowd is not just spectator, they form living dikes along the carnaval river without which the parade would lose meaning.

Also separate children's parade are sometimes held which focuses not on ridiculing and criticism, but on role changing and dressing.

The number eleven plays an undeniably important role in the carnaval. The opinions on this subject are very divergent, so much so that one explanation often has nothing to do even with the other.

On the other hand, the number eleven is not only central to the carnaval, but it has built up a kind of mystical and magical value through the ages.

This happens to be the feast day of sint Maarten st. Martin's day. This day is celebrated in some parts of Groningen , North Holland and the southern part of Limburg and to a lesser extent in South Holland and Zeeland.

This feast is the beginning of the dark period before Christmas and the long days of winter. For centuries, 11 November, was the day that the year's work was deemed to be done.

The barns were filled for the winter, the selected livestock would have been slaughtered and very importantly: the lease, property taxes, interests, and tithe were to be paid.

These often weighed very heavily on the population. A year of scraping, frugality and putting every penny aside, would end after the payment on 11 November.

In both the Rhenish and the Burgundian carnaval plays an important role. At 11—11 on During this meeting will also the new Prince be announced.

In Brabant at the same meeting the new carnaval mottos are disclosed by the prince. Also it is the start of the building of the carnaval floats for the coming parade.

Eleven is original the "fools number" in Germanic culture. In German it is called a Schnapszahl and associated with alcohol consumption and used in numerology.

In the Dutch language it is associated with idiocy Dutch : gekkengetal. It is an imperfect number since it is one number less than the base number twelve in the duodecimal numeral system and one number more than the base number ten in the decimal numeral system.

Also it is a prime number. The number eleven in Dutch and German is translated as Elf. There is suggested that the word " elf " became associated with the words Elf , Elves , Elven or Alven.

But Christianized societies were viewing elves in increasingly sinister light. In Anglo-Saxon England as early as the 10th century, Old English medical books attest to elves afflicting humans and livestock by " elf-shot ".

The German elf or alp was seen as an addler of people in medical books, but already in the High Middle Ages there were prayers warding against it as the agent causing nightmares, and eventually for the alp its identity as nightmare spirit became predominant.

The ritual re-enactment of the Wild Hunt was a cultural phenomenon among many Gallic and Germanic peoples. At the head of this army, would have been Erlenköning Hellequin.

Although there is certain historical data on ancient meaning of the number 11, there may also be a younger explanation. It is known that the oldest Geckengesellschaft jester group was founded by count Adolf of Cleve in and took place on 12 November.

Everything indicates that the foundation celebration of the 11th apparently got out of control, so the signing took place one day too late. The seal of the count takes the 11th place in the row of 35 stamps.

Cabaret in dialect is held in both variants of carnaval. In North Brabant the person doing the cabaret is called a tonpraoter barrel speaker or in the Western part of North Brabant a sauwelaar , and is actually in or on a barrel.

In Limburg they are named buuttereedner or buutteredner and in Zeeland they are called an ouwoer. They all perform a cabaret speech in dialect, during which many current issues and events of the past year are reviewed.

Often there are local situations and celebrities from the local and regional politics who will be mocked, ridiculed and insulted.

The tonpraoter or buuttereedner is a successor of the medieval jester. Open stages are held in the weeks before the carnaval where people from the community, mostly amateurs, can participate in carnaval related acts like music, farces , dance acts and cabaret.

Such a bonte avond is free to visit for the public. During the "pronkzitting" there are also performances of carnaval orchestras and majorettes. The prince and youth prince and their councils of eleven will attend.

Unlike at other carnaval events, at the pronkzitting the usual dress code for the public is evening dress. It may be assumed that the emergence of the figure of the jester is coinciding with the development of the medieval civilization.

Since the very beginning of his occurrence, the fool has been the personification of folly for centuries, as the jester was the one who tipped reality.

In other words, the jesters mirrored or exaggerated the everyday reality, and is way-ward or taboo -breaking. They spoke truths that others were only secretly thinking.

Actual fools often lacks the ability to behave according to the norms, while conscious jesters exaggerated to serve as a mirror to their public. The image of the jester is mainly shaped by its heyday.

This ran from the Middle Ages to the late seventeenth century. The default image is that of the jester with fool's cap with bells, cheerful colors and oversized shoes, and marotte.

In reality, some wore a jester costume, but other wore deliberately shabby clothes and some wore noble robes. Nowadays we imagine the jester often with a small deformed appearance, but this was not always the case.

There were basically two kinds of jesters. The ones with physical and especially mental disabilities the fools who could be mocked by their employers and the real jesters who were hired or recruited to mock others and entertain.

If there were setbacks, they were the ones whom one could blame or who could take the heat, or the ones people could laugh about and determine that things could be worse.

The jesters were intelligent artists, well-spoken and theatrical witty. They were aware of their duties and took a position between the ruler and the people.

They could tell the king or ruler what no one else dared. A role that the contemporary tonpraoters and buuttereedners continue in a modern way.

A familiar phenomenon during the carnaval is the presence of the prince [1] and his entourage which is a parody on the normal authorities.

The prince rules the city during the days of carnaval and symbolizes this way the power that is held by the common people.

The format of this custom varies by region, the prince and his jester generally called adjutant however, are almost universally within the carnaval traditions.

The prince is traditionally a male and can be the same person for years, but often a different person is elected every year. Depending on the towns tradition, the prince is chosen by the association or by all the people of the town, in which case a campaign is often held.

The prince is called Prins Prince or sometimes Vorst Fürst. Each year the usual all male Council of Eleven of every carnaval association proclaims a prince, and one adjutant or more aides.

The council of eleven does not necessarily hold eleven members, often there are more than eleven, sometimes less. The adjutant of the prince on occasion called jester is part of the Council of Eleven and is the main aid of the prince and second in command.

The actual origin of the name "Council of Eleven" is traced back to the Duchy of Brabant in the fifteenth century. The Netherlands and Belgium in the Middle Ages consisted of a number of duchies , counties, heerlijkheden , etc.

One of those duchies was the Duchy of Brabant , which was the heart and most important region of the Low Countries until late in the 15th century and included the current province of North Brabant Netherlands and the provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant Belgium.

When the Duke of Brabant Anthony of Burgundy in was killed in the battle of Anzicourt , the delegates of the seven ancient cities of Brabant and the four largest abbeys of Brabant organized a meeting to discuss the succession of the Duke.

The Duchess-Widow was not eligible for the succession, because of her rights to Luxembourg. However, they had two sons, the oldest named Jan , was only eleven years.

On 4 November, the states decided to recognize him as Duke of Brabant, and that the day-to-day government should be looked after by the "Council of Eleven" consisting of the seven cities of Brabant and the four abbeys.

The appointment of the board members of the "Council of Eleven" is very likely to have occurred in the following week, on or around 11 November.

It is traditional that the prince, and his council of eleven wears a fore-and-aft bicorne with pheasant tail feathers, in particular in those places that are influenced by the Rhenish Carnaval.

Carnaval is however by definition controlled by unwritten laws. Hence the use of this tradition varies from place to place.

However generally speaking the prince wears "three" feathers on his bicorne. The former princes, adjutant and the carnaval association president wear two feathers, while the actual members of the Council of Eleven wear one feather on their bicorne.

The plumes are worn on the left side of the bicorne. Not everywhere in Limburg and Brabant is a boerenbruiloft peasant 's wedding part of the carnaval.

Especially in the northern and central part of Limburg and eastern part of North Brabant is the boerenbruiloft very often held during the carnaval and is an important part of the carnaval culture.

Each carnaval association has its own tradition concerning choosing the spouse for a wedding. When it's a small association often the bride and groom are chosen by the council of eleven or by the couple that was married the year before.

In Venlo it is not the carnaval association that chooses the participants of the peasant wedding, but an outsider group.

This may be a company, a family, a football club, or as in a delegation of the hospital in Venlo.

In that case, the board has determined who would become bride and groom. It is not necessary that the newlyweds are a couple in real life.

It is also not necessary that the bride and groom are single. Both the bride and groom, however, should be in love during the carnaval and they need to transfer their love to all the people who celebrate their wedding along with them.

The highlight of the festival of the peasant wedding is the wedding and feast of the onecht not-marriage of the bride and groom. There are many aspects that can be found in a real-life marriage.

First the engagement will be announced just as if it would be an officially marriage. And both the families should learn to know each other very well in organizing the party and the ceremony, like a normal wedding.

The two families prepare a piece of entertainment for the wedding. And just like a real wedding, a reception and a feast is organized where guests are asked to wear appropriate clothing.

The bride and groom will often dress in wedding clothing from before The bride for example will often wear a poffer , which is a traditional Brabantian headdress.

The first mention of a "boerenbruiloft" peasant wedding was in , when the Saxon elector August in Dresden wedded a peasant and his wife during a large ritual ceremony d'n onech the not-marriage.

It was not a real wedding and the to-be spouse were also not real peasants, but rather the nobility. The real peasants were given the role of noblemen.

It was a reversal ritual, in which the roles were deliberately reversed. This role reversal was intended to avoid the attraction of the eye of the Christian god.

Within the noble circles it was believed that it was the eye of the god which at the beginning of the spring focused on them because of their failure in the past year.

They thought they could escape this danger by dressing during this wedding celebrations and to behave as peasants, and thus appear to be the people at the bottom of the social ladder.

They believed the consequence was that the peasants dressed as nobleman would be harmed by their god instead of the nobles themselves.

Carnaval songs are a relatively recent phenomenon after World War II. Intentionally amateurish marching bands Zaate Hermeniekes or Drunken Marching Bands traditionally perform this kind of music on the streets, mainly in Limburg.

In North-Brabant the music is played mainly indoors in pubs and feast halls, which is also done in Limburg. Carnaval music is often a song written especially for the occasion and is easy to dance to.

It is an expression of one's own culture, one's own lifestyle. The contents of a canavalschlager is often melancholy and even chauvinistic.

For example, it may be an expression of pride in one's own village, town or region, local patriotism and praise of one's own place, and therefore in one's own local dialect.

But it can also be a resistance to loss of identity and alienation, to changes affecting the individuality or local society and against the absorption in the broader culture.

Therefore, it often happens that the village name or the name of the prince of the group, appear in the text of a carnaval song. The carnaval music is used during the carnaval to ridicule the normal culture, therefore the creating and playing of carnaval music is a very seasonal happening.

Many popular artists were discovered at this time. In the seventies, the samba got back to radio. In the beginning of the eighties, after having been sent to the underground due to styles like disco and Brazilian rock, Samba reappeared in the media with a musical movement created in the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro.

It was the pagode, a renewed samba, with new instruments, like the banjo and the tantan, and a new language, more popular, filled with slang.

Various samba schools have been founded throughout Brazil. A samba school combines the dancing and party fun of a night club with the gathering place of a social club and the community feeling of a volunteer group.

Frevo is a wide range of musical styles originating from Recife and Olinda , Pernambuco , Brazil , all of which are traditionally associated with Brazilian Carnival.

The word frevo is said to come from frever , a misspeaking of the Portuguese word ferver to boil. It is said that the sound of the frevo will make listeners and dancers to feel as they are boiling on the ground.

The word frevo is normally used interchangeably either to mean the frevo music or the frevo dance. The frevo music came first.

By the end of the 19th century, bands from the Brazilian Army regiments based in the city of Recife started a tradition of parading during the Carnival.

Since the Carnival is originally linked to religion, they played religious procession marches and martial music, as well. A couple of regiments had famous bands which attracted lots of followers and it was just a matter of time to people start to compare one to another and cheer for their favorite bands.

The two most famous bands were the Espanha meaning Spain , whose conductor was of Spanish origin, and the 14 , from the 14th regiment.

The bands started to compete with each other and also started playing faster and faster, louder and louder. Soon, the artists became oblivious to the derogatory origins of the term and started taking advantage of it.

With the media pushing it forward, the soundtrack of Carnival in Salvador quickly spread over the country through off-season Carnival shindigs , strengthening its industrial potentials and producing year-round hits along the 90s.

The Brazilian Carnival Parades were first broadcast in the late s on television on Rede Globo , which brought the Rio celebrations live, bringing the celebrations to more people all over the nation.

Now defunct, Rede Manchete broadcast the event on several occasions and mounted a joint broadcast with Globo for the event.

Until , fans of the samba schools on parade also expected to watch a short preview of the performances of the schools involved to be broadcast during the duration of the event.

By lyric video style adverts appeared in their place, complete with the colours of the competing schools in attendance, featuring the lyrics of the songs to be performed by the schools.

The Rio parade can also be heard on radio and seen via online streaming as well thru TVG Rio and from in G1, which offers an online live streaming of the victory parade.

The Carnivals of Recife and Salvador are shown by Band since the early s, and Band also holds broadcast rights for the victory parade.

Both fall under the Band Folia brand. Since , Globo also has its own broadcast team and crew for the broadcasts of the late night Galo da Madrugada in Recife.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Annual festival in Brazil. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.

Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Rio's carnival is the largest in the world according to Guinness World Records.

Main article: Rio Carnival. Main article: Bahian Carnival. Main articles: Samba and Samba Brazilian dance.

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Tschechisch Wörterbücher. Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. D er Karneval vo n K ozani i st der [ Es war ein enormer [ Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. Polnisch Wörterbücher. Wollen Sie einen Satz übersetzen? Segunda-feira de Carnaval f — Rosenmontag m. Sh ow s Williamhill Poker, carnaval Time Is Money, c on certos e festivais para todos [ Wenn Sie es aktivieren, können sie den Vokabeltrainer und Beste Spielothek in Wulsdorf finden Funktionen nutzen. Dänisch Wörterbücher. Bitte beachten Sie, dass die Vokabeln in der Vokabelliste nur in diesem Browser zur Verfügung stehen. Karnevalskostüm nt. Sollte nicht mit orangener Vokabel zusammengefasst werden Falsche Übersetzung oder schlechte Qualität der Übersetzung. Fasching m. Griechisch Wörterbücher. Carnaval Polnisch Wörterbücher. Polnisch Wörterbücher. Dänisch Wörterbücher. Senden Sie uns gern einen neuen Eintrag. Bulgarisch Wörterbücher. Maskenzug m. Sänger und Bands der ganzen Insel um die Ehre streiten, das jährliche. Beste Spielothek in Eisbergen finden Wörterbücher. Worttrennung: Aussprache: IPA: [ ] Hörbeispiele: —. Bedeutungen: [1] Volkstum: der Karneval, die Fastnacht, der Fasching. Herkunft: [1] von der lateinischen. Aunque si adquiere P&O Princess, el principal operador británico, Carnaval se hará con alrededor de un tercio del mercado británico de cruceros en términos. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "carnaval" – Deutsch-Portugiesisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Carnaval de %%datos_comarca%%. Alhama, dessen Verlust der maurische König in einer Romanze betrauerte, war schon in der römischen Epoche sehr. Carnaval de Vilanova. Es handelt sich um eine der größten und abwechslungsreichsten Karnevalsveranstaltungen in ganz Katalonien. Die Feierlichkeiten.

Even mild criticism of the political and social system, until then painstakingly smothered by the authorities, suddenly appeared to be possible Carnaval became to the South, what the Provo was to the North [of the Netherlands].

What actually happened was exactly the opposite of what had happened during the Middle Ages : a new morality was tested, not to investigate what is not allowed, but to investigate what is allowed.

Hence, De Jager believes, Carnaval was one of the developments that gave impetus to the South to more informal manners, individualization and sexual revolution and then to ontzuiling depillarisation and secularization.

The Carnaval exceeded in the s the border that is formed by " the Great Rivers " the Maas , the Waal and the Rhine , lost all religious connotations and became a secular feast.

Also the practice of lent became rapidly extinct in the Netherlands in the s and s. The south of the Netherlands, which is mostly Roman Catholic by tradition is now largely secular in practice.

After the modern feast of carnaval lost the association with Christian religion as a result of the rapid secularization in the Netherlands in the second half of the 20th century, the carnaval became more celebrated in parts of the country which were Protestant by tradition.

At the end of the twentieth century there were carnaval associations in all the provinces of the Netherlands which are active in organizing the celebrations.

As a result, the carnaval in these parts of the country usually lasts only one day with the emphasis on role dressing and feasting, without the social criticism, parades and months of prelude.

Carnaval officially lasts from Sunday to Tuesday, but the current practice is that often there are numerous Carnaval festivities between 11 November and the actual feast, especially in the last weeks before carnaval.

Sometimes there are also on Ash Wednesday some carnaval activities held. The post-Christian carnaval consist of several days consecutively drinking, feasting, role-dressing, social criticizing and mocking, parades and music.

Also specific carnaval traditions and customs which may vary from town to town are an important part of the modern carnaval.

The ridiculing and socially critical aspects of the carnaval are mostly emphasized during the parades. Southern schools often dedicate the Friday afternoon before the actual feast to the carnaval.

Children are invited to come role-dressed to school, sometimes the schools even organize a school parade and choose a school prince.

In the Netherlands, the start of the season is celebrated in almost every carnaval celebrating town with some kind of ceremony.

The reason for this date is the number 11, which is traditionally the number of fools and madmen. In the Netherlands there are two kinds of Carnaval: the Rhenish carnaval and the Burgundian carnaval.

The Carnavals are in many ways similar, but because of their origins and unique traditions they are also easy to distinguish from each other.

The Rhenish variant is usually celebrated in Limburg , the Burgundian variant in the north, mid and west of North Brabant , Gelderland , Twente and in parts of Zeeland and in Utrecht.

The east of North Brabant where East Brabantian is spoken has manifestations of both types of carnaval and forms an overlap region of the two types of carnaval, but is often classified as Burgundian.

The Rhenish carnaval in the Netherlands is a derivative of the Cologne carnaval. The Burgundian carnaval originated from the traditional eating feasts during which people would ridicule one another during the carnaval in the Southern Netherlands nowadays Belgium , Luxembourg and the Dutch Provinces North Brabant and Limburg , especially in the Duchy of Brabant.

Carnaval is not only a feast of eating and drinking, but also serves as social role reversal feast which allows people to behave outside the usual acceptable social norm.

People will dress up as a character, much as seen during the eve of the Christian feast of All Hallows that appears in the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon culture, which though has developed from a different origin.

Masks and face paint are often used in combination with the costumes. The old tradition of wearing masks is becoming more and more replaced by the use of face paint, which makes it easier to drink and eat during the feasting.

The costumes allow people to change their identity and role in society for a few days without being judged for it by their fellowman during and after the carnaval.

This also applies to feasting and drinking and other licentious behaviour which can be attributed to the temporary identity one takes on, rather than to the person him or herself.

The function of this is to mirror and exaggerate daily life, to denounce and raise awareness of every day events and put life in perspective.

A proper mocking carnaval costume does not simply insult or ridicule, but makes actually a valuable point. When not used to make a point, carnaval costumes offer an opportunity to temporarily change identity and express oneself freely.

Traditionally the role dressing serves three major purposes: [1]. This element of the carnaval is already known in the medieval carnaval.

The changing of positions in power provide an opportunity to criticize the authorities without fear of retribution and are part of the role reversal function of the carnaval.

Since numerous societies were established which organized carnaval balls. In fact, these associations took on many activities which the guilds used to organize in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period before the French occupation and are in that sense their successors.

More than Burgundian, the Rhenish carnaval celebrations are dominated by carnaval associations. These associations, of which there are sometimes many per city or village with each their own prince and council of eleven, organize their own festivities for both members and non-members of the association during the carnaval.

The associations choose a prince and entourage and even though a Burgundian town can have dozens of carnaval associations, there is only one prince per city or village.

Cologne had already started organizing carnaval by an association in , followed in by Düsseldorf and Mainz in In Limburg the carnaval organized by an association was as common as in the German Rhineland.

Momus was probably the first carnaval association in the Netherlands and was founded in in Maastricht , followed by Jocus in the city of Venlo in Momus name derives from the Greek god Momus.

Momus is the Greek god of mockery and criticism. When in Venlo a sorority founded the carnaval association, they could thus choose between Comus Greek god of festivity, anarchy and chaos and Jocus Roman god of wit and raillery.

Momus is not the oldest existing carnaval association because it had faded out before the Second World War in After the war the carnaval in Maastricht was organized by the Tempeleers.

In many places, large carnaval parades are held with large floats, organized and created by the carnaval associations. The parades have usual a particular theme whereby authorities are ridiculed and criticized, events of the past year are represented and which are often politically incorrect and used to make people think outside the box or function as a mirror to the society.

Also groups or individuals on foot will participate and fill the gaps between the carnaval wagons during the parade.

Fanfares and marching bands will provide for typical carnaval music. The floats are built by carnaval associations, but also often by independent groups of friends, families, neighbourhoods or other clubs.

A massive ship-looking wagon is shown in every carnaval parade which is manned by the prince, his entourage and the council of eleven of the city it is held or of the carnaval association that organized the parade and is usually the last float at the parade.

Carnaval parades often start at In that case they will start at 11 past the hour as well. Usually a competition will be held to choose the most outstanding contribution to the parade with separate categories for floats, groups on foot and individual participants.

Although a procession usually takes from a starting point to a point of arrival, it actually roams from nowhere to nowhere.

What only matters is the social binding during the parade. Along the route, the crowd forms a very essential part of the parade. The crowd is not just spectator, they form living dikes along the carnaval river without which the parade would lose meaning.

Also separate children's parade are sometimes held which focuses not on ridiculing and criticism, but on role changing and dressing.

The number eleven plays an undeniably important role in the carnaval. The opinions on this subject are very divergent, so much so that one explanation often has nothing to do even with the other.

On the other hand, the number eleven is not only central to the carnaval, but it has built up a kind of mystical and magical value through the ages.

This happens to be the feast day of sint Maarten st. Martin's day. This day is celebrated in some parts of Groningen , North Holland and the southern part of Limburg and to a lesser extent in South Holland and Zeeland.

This feast is the beginning of the dark period before Christmas and the long days of winter. For centuries, 11 November, was the day that the year's work was deemed to be done.

The barns were filled for the winter, the selected livestock would have been slaughtered and very importantly: the lease, property taxes, interests, and tithe were to be paid.

These often weighed very heavily on the population. A year of scraping, frugality and putting every penny aside, would end after the payment on 11 November.

In both the Rhenish and the Burgundian carnaval plays an important role. At 11—11 on During this meeting will also the new Prince be announced.

In Brabant at the same meeting the new carnaval mottos are disclosed by the prince. Also it is the start of the building of the carnaval floats for the coming parade.

Eleven is original the "fools number" in Germanic culture. In German it is called a Schnapszahl and associated with alcohol consumption and used in numerology.

In the Dutch language it is associated with idiocy Dutch : gekkengetal. It is an imperfect number since it is one number less than the base number twelve in the duodecimal numeral system and one number more than the base number ten in the decimal numeral system.

Also it is a prime number. The number eleven in Dutch and German is translated as Elf. There is suggested that the word " elf " became associated with the words Elf , Elves , Elven or Alven.

But Christianized societies were viewing elves in increasingly sinister light. In Anglo-Saxon England as early as the 10th century, Old English medical books attest to elves afflicting humans and livestock by " elf-shot ".

The German elf or alp was seen as an addler of people in medical books, but already in the High Middle Ages there were prayers warding against it as the agent causing nightmares, and eventually for the alp its identity as nightmare spirit became predominant.

The ritual re-enactment of the Wild Hunt was a cultural phenomenon among many Gallic and Germanic peoples. At the head of this army, would have been Erlenköning Hellequin.

Although there is certain historical data on ancient meaning of the number 11, there may also be a younger explanation.

It is known that the oldest Geckengesellschaft jester group was founded by count Adolf of Cleve in and took place on 12 November.

Everything indicates that the foundation celebration of the 11th apparently got out of control, so the signing took place one day too late.

The seal of the count takes the 11th place in the row of 35 stamps. Cabaret in dialect is held in both variants of carnaval.

In North Brabant the person doing the cabaret is called a tonpraoter barrel speaker or in the Western part of North Brabant a sauwelaar , and is actually in or on a barrel.

In Limburg they are named buuttereedner or buutteredner and in Zeeland they are called an ouwoer. They all perform a cabaret speech in dialect, during which many current issues and events of the past year are reviewed.

Often there are local situations and celebrities from the local and regional politics who will be mocked, ridiculed and insulted.

The tonpraoter or buuttereedner is a successor of the medieval jester. Open stages are held in the weeks before the carnaval where people from the community, mostly amateurs, can participate in carnaval related acts like music, farces , dance acts and cabaret.

Such a bonte avond is free to visit for the public. During the "pronkzitting" there are also performances of carnaval orchestras and majorettes.

The prince and youth prince and their councils of eleven will attend. Unlike at other carnaval events, at the pronkzitting the usual dress code for the public is evening dress.

It may be assumed that the emergence of the figure of the jester is coinciding with the development of the medieval civilization. Since the very beginning of his occurrence, the fool has been the personification of folly for centuries, as the jester was the one who tipped reality.

In other words, the jesters mirrored or exaggerated the everyday reality, and is way-ward or taboo -breaking.

They spoke truths that others were only secretly thinking. Actual fools often lacks the ability to behave according to the norms, while conscious jesters exaggerated to serve as a mirror to their public.

The image of the jester is mainly shaped by its heyday. This ran from the Middle Ages to the late seventeenth century.

The default image is that of the jester with fool's cap with bells, cheerful colors and oversized shoes, and marotte. In reality, some wore a jester costume, but other wore deliberately shabby clothes and some wore noble robes.

Nowadays we imagine the jester often with a small deformed appearance, but this was not always the case.

There were basically two kinds of jesters. The ones with physical and especially mental disabilities the fools who could be mocked by their employers and the real jesters who were hired or recruited to mock others and entertain.

If there were setbacks, they were the ones whom one could blame or who could take the heat, or the ones people could laugh about and determine that things could be worse.

The jesters were intelligent artists, well-spoken and theatrical witty. They were aware of their duties and took a position between the ruler and the people.

They could tell the king or ruler what no one else dared. A role that the contemporary tonpraoters and buuttereedners continue in a modern way.

A familiar phenomenon during the carnaval is the presence of the prince [1] and his entourage which is a parody on the normal authorities.

The prince rules the city during the days of carnaval and symbolizes this way the power that is held by the common people.

The format of this custom varies by region, the prince and his jester generally called adjutant however, are almost universally within the carnaval traditions.

The prince is traditionally a male and can be the same person for years, but often a different person is elected every year.

Depending on the towns tradition, the prince is chosen by the association or by all the people of the town, in which case a campaign is often held.

The prince is called Prins Prince or sometimes Vorst Fürst. Each year the usual all male Council of Eleven of every carnaval association proclaims a prince, and one adjutant or more aides.

The council of eleven does not necessarily hold eleven members, often there are more than eleven, sometimes less. The adjutant of the prince on occasion called jester is part of the Council of Eleven and is the main aid of the prince and second in command.

The actual origin of the name "Council of Eleven" is traced back to the Duchy of Brabant in the fifteenth century.

The Netherlands and Belgium in the Middle Ages consisted of a number of duchies , counties, heerlijkheden , etc. One of those duchies was the Duchy of Brabant , which was the heart and most important region of the Low Countries until late in the 15th century and included the current province of North Brabant Netherlands and the provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant Belgium.

When the Duke of Brabant Anthony of Burgundy in was killed in the battle of Anzicourt , the delegates of the seven ancient cities of Brabant and the four largest abbeys of Brabant organized a meeting to discuss the succession of the Duke.

The Duchess-Widow was not eligible for the succession, because of her rights to Luxembourg. However, they had two sons, the oldest named Jan , was only eleven years.

On 4 November, the states decided to recognize him as Duke of Brabant, and that the day-to-day government should be looked after by the "Council of Eleven" consisting of the seven cities of Brabant and the four abbeys.

The appointment of the board members of the "Council of Eleven" is very likely to have occurred in the following week, on or around 11 November. It is traditional that the prince, and his council of eleven wears a fore-and-aft bicorne with pheasant tail feathers, in particular in those places that are influenced by the Rhenish Carnaval.

Carnaval is however by definition controlled by unwritten laws. Hence the use of this tradition varies from place to place.

However generally speaking the prince wears "three" feathers on his bicorne. The former princes, adjutant and the carnaval association president wear two feathers, while the actual members of the Council of Eleven wear one feather on their bicorne.

The plumes are worn on the left side of the bicorne. Not everywhere in Limburg and Brabant is a boerenbruiloft peasant 's wedding part of the carnaval.

Especially in the northern and central part of Limburg and eastern part of North Brabant is the boerenbruiloft very often held during the carnaval and is an important part of the carnaval culture.

Each carnaval association has its own tradition concerning choosing the spouse for a wedding. When it's a small association often the bride and groom are chosen by the council of eleven or by the couple that was married the year before.

In Venlo it is not the carnaval association that chooses the participants of the peasant wedding, but an outsider group. This may be a company, a family, a football club, or as in a delegation of the hospital in Venlo.

In that case, the board has determined who would become bride and groom. It is not necessary that the newlyweds are a couple in real life.

It is also not necessary that the bride and groom are single. Both the bride and groom, however, should be in love during the carnaval and they need to transfer their love to all the people who celebrate their wedding along with them.

The highlight of the festival of the peasant wedding is the wedding and feast of the onecht not-marriage of the bride and groom.

There are many aspects that can be found in a real-life marriage. First the engagement will be announced just as if it would be an officially marriage.

And both the families should learn to know each other very well in organizing the party and the ceremony, like a normal wedding.

The two families prepare a piece of entertainment for the wedding. And just like a real wedding, a reception and a feast is organized where guests are asked to wear appropriate clothing.

The bride and groom will often dress in wedding clothing from before The bride for example will often wear a poffer , which is a traditional Brabantian headdress.

The first mention of a "boerenbruiloft" peasant wedding was in , when the Saxon elector August in Dresden wedded a peasant and his wife during a large ritual ceremony d'n onech the not-marriage.

It was not a real wedding and the to-be spouse were also not real peasants, but rather the nobility. The real peasants were given the role of noblemen.

It was a reversal ritual, in which the roles were deliberately reversed. This role reversal was intended to avoid the attraction of the eye of the Christian god.

Within the noble circles it was believed that it was the eye of the god which at the beginning of the spring focused on them because of their failure in the past year.

They thought they could escape this danger by dressing during this wedding celebrations and to behave as peasants, and thus appear to be the people at the bottom of the social ladder.

They believed the consequence was that the peasants dressed as nobleman would be harmed by their god instead of the nobles themselves.

Carnaval songs are a relatively recent phenomenon after World War II. Intentionally amateurish marching bands Zaate Hermeniekes or Drunken Marching Bands traditionally perform this kind of music on the streets, mainly in Limburg.

In North-Brabant the music is played mainly indoors in pubs and feast halls, which is also done in Limburg. Carnaval music is often a song written especially for the occasion and is easy to dance to.

It is an expression of one's own culture, one's own lifestyle. The contents of a canavalschlager is often melancholy and even chauvinistic.

For example, it may be an expression of pride in one's own village, town or region, local patriotism and praise of one's own place, and therefore in one's own local dialect.

But it can also be a resistance to loss of identity and alienation, to changes affecting the individuality or local society and against the absorption in the broader culture.

Therefore, it often happens that the village name or the name of the prince of the group, appear in the text of a carnaval song.

The carnaval music is used during the carnaval to ridicule the normal culture, therefore the creating and playing of carnaval music is a very seasonal happening.

Local carnaval clubs usually try to address current issues in local dialect in a carnaval song. Carnaval songs are a form of opportunity compositions.

A good carnaval song has several recognizable ingredients:. Hossen jumping together in a group is a way of dancing during the carnaval which is mainly found in Brabant , also the polonaise is done during the carnaval.

In the southernmost part of the Netherlands in Limburg, there are three ways of carnaval dancing: sjoenkele slowly moving back and forth, left to right, etc.

In southern Limburg the polonaise is called the reijaloet. The polonaise is usually done spontaneous and for short moment of times, but can be done by dozens of people together.

Also during the parade and official gatherings there are usual dance shows performed by the majorettes called dansmarietjes or dansmariekes in Dutch.

During carnaval brass bands, called kapellen Limburg and dweilorkesten ambling orchestra. In Limburg, the orchestras are more limited to playing outside.

This immediately shows a big difference between the two variants: Burgundian carnaval is mainly celebrated indoors, Rhenish carnaval is mostly celebrated outdoors.

Many pubs in Maastricht take their facade away during carnaval to open up to the feast on the streets. The traditional Rhenish carnaval greeting and exclamation is Alaaf.

It is an, on the Lower Rhine area, common jubilant outcry and calling to a toast, but only during the actually Carnaval festivities.

It is not used on other days of the year. The word is introduced through Maastricht from the Cologne word alaaf at least 18th century, but probably older and ended up in Limburg and hence the rest of the Southern Netherlands.

The Cologne word probably goes back to a dialect form of German all-ab , meaning Everything out of the way , with extension of the second A.

The German Rhineland used to be occupied by the Prussians at the time, which had strong militaristic customs. In this region an alternate salute was devised as a protest parody: not with the right hand against the right temple as usual, but with the top of the right hand to the left temple.

In addition to national and provincial variations, there also is a diversity in carnaval rituals between the various cities or towns.

In the many yearbooks of local carnaval groups are the local rituals described. For example: In Den Bosch and some other near municipalities a large doll named Farmer Knillis symbolizes the peasant farmer.

Dressed in an early 20th century farmers outfit and several meters tall, he stands prominently on his pedestal at the Market.

On Carnaval Sunday he is revealed in the early afternoon by the Prince in the presence of sometimes thousands of carnaval celebrators.

Carnaval ends on Tuesday midnight with the symbolic burial or burning, depending on the town's tradition of Farmer Knillis by the Prince and his Adjutant.

Knillis has grown into a tradition in several towns and is in Den Bosch revealed since on Carnaval Sunday. Each leap year, Knillis is accompanied by his wife Hendrien.

Until Knillis would be burned at the end of the Carnaval in Den Bosch, but the tradition was then outlawed until it revived in the early 20th century.

Since then Knillis is buried instead of burned in Den Bosch. This tradition is not known however in the majority of Carnaval celebrating towns in Brabant.

In Helmond a variation of this tradition can be found: a man-sized boulder representing Carnaval, which is buried on the forecourt, is dug up every year on Carnaval Saturday.

The boulder stays above ground for four days as a symbol of the Carnaval. At the very end of the Carnaval it is buried again until the following year, while the bystanders mourn for it by loud wailing and weeping.

In Twente children dress up and go door by door making noise by rattling a stick in a jar and singing special songs to get candy, quite like children on IJsselmonde on New Year's Eve before the s and nowadays in North-Holland during St.

Martin's Day. This is called: foekepotten. This however is not common anymore in the rest of the Netherlands. The custom of Foekepotten is already seen on a painting by Pieter Bruegel , called The Fight Between Carnival and Lent from the man with the stick in the jar beneath the figure on the barrel.

The Rhenish variant, which is celebrated in the province of Limburg and has an overlap in the eastern part of North Brabant, is based on the carnaval celebrations in cities in the western German state of North Rhine - Westphalia.

Especially Cologne , which in turn was based mostly on the carnival of Venice , has had a major impact on the nature of this carnaval.

By the end of the 19th century, the carnaval in the Rhineland was used as an opportunity to protest against the imperialist and protestant Prussia which annexated the area at the time.

Many of the current militaristic traditions can be traced back to this protest feast. In the week before carnaval usual Thursday there are, so-called Oude Wijven or Limburgish : Auw Wiever old women days and Oudewijvenbals old women balls.

During Ouwe Wijve or Auw Wiever the pubs and streets are crowded by costumed women, usually dressed as old women. Men who dare to go out on the streets and in the pubs are at risk to be humiliated, be hit on the buttock and chased away.

Also in some towns it is tradition that the women are allowed to kiss every man they like to during Ouw Wijve. This tradition is especially widespread in the south of Limburg.

It is believed to be a postwar invention from Rhineland , where women wanted to emphasize the independence they gained to men who had returned from the front after the years of war.

The tradition may have an older background though. The position of men compared to women in society has often been a matter of debate.

In Cologne is since the so-called Weiberfastnacht known. On the Thursday before carnaval, women are wearing men's clothes, reversing the roles and thus literally "being the man".

In the Dutch border village Groenstraat a precursor to the Auwwieverbal Old women ball or Auw Wieverdaag old women day was known already in the early 19th century.

The people at that time earned a living by breeding goats and selling woman's hair. The Thursday before carnaval the men would sell the hair to their French buyers.

After the sale, as the man had plenty of money, they would go visit the pubs. The women would not be at the sale because they were expected to stay at home.

Out of fear that their men would squander the money raised by their hair, the women would go find their husbands to prevent them from wasting it on alcohol.

The search along the pubs transformed later to the Ouwewijvenbal. The women, this time incognito, firmly asserted themselves to their husbands and other men.

Venlo has a tradition of its own, namely Truujendaag , where the women dress in late medieval clothing. This name is probably derived from the headstrong figure Gertruid Bolwater from Venlo.

According to the legend during a siege of the city during the Guelders Wars in or she defeated several enemy soldiers and tore the banner from the hands of an enemy soldier.

Traditional clothing consists of elaborate costumes. Vai-Vai is the oldest school and has been the Special Group champion most times 15 total, including the championship.

It also is the most popular, for it has a larger fan base and many supporters among the people of the city. More than the traditional school parade, the carnival in Espirito Santos includes a large set of attractions, especially in the beach areas of the state, from north to south.

They are held mostly by students' houses, which attract a majority of young people from the neighbor states. Carnival in Minas Gerais is often characterized by blocos carnavalescos with varying themes and costume styles, almost always accompanied by a brass and drums band.

However, Minas Gerais carnival was first influenced by the Rio de Janeiro Carnival several cities have their own samba schools.

The first carnival party in Belo Horizonte happened in , even before the inauguration of the city. In , Belo Horizonte had the largest carnival in its history and the third largest in Brazil.

There were more than three million people on the streets, with about ,00 tourists. The Carnival of the city of Ouro Preto is very popular with college students in the area.

The hills prevent traffic of heavy sound trucks, but don't stop people from feasting all night and day.

The Carnival of the city of Juiz de Fora is that already came to be in the mid 80, one of the three largest carnivals in Brazil. Curitiba hosts modest carnival celebrations similar to those of other Brazilian cities and events such as Curitiba Rock Festival and a carnival Zombie Walk , all supported by Cultural Foundation of Curitiba which operates under supervision of government of Curitiba.

Originated in Rio de Janeiro between the end of the 19th century and the first years of the 20th century, the samba is still one of the most popular music styles of Brazil.

They transformed the musical genre to make it fit better the carnival parade. One of these new styles was bossa nova, a musical movement initially spearheaded by young musicians and college students from Rio de Janeiro.

In the sixties, Brazil was politically divided, and the leftist musicians of bossa nova started to draw attention to the music made in the favelas.

Many popular artists were discovered at this time. In the seventies, the samba got back to radio. In the beginning of the eighties, after having been sent to the underground due to styles like disco and Brazilian rock, Samba reappeared in the media with a musical movement created in the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro.

It was the pagode, a renewed samba, with new instruments, like the banjo and the tantan, and a new language, more popular, filled with slang.

Various samba schools have been founded throughout Brazil. A samba school combines the dancing and party fun of a night club with the gathering place of a social club and the community feeling of a volunteer group.

Frevo is a wide range of musical styles originating from Recife and Olinda , Pernambuco , Brazil , all of which are traditionally associated with Brazilian Carnival.

The word frevo is said to come from frever , a misspeaking of the Portuguese word ferver to boil. It is said that the sound of the frevo will make listeners and dancers to feel as they are boiling on the ground.

The word frevo is normally used interchangeably either to mean the frevo music or the frevo dance.

The frevo music came first. By the end of the 19th century, bands from the Brazilian Army regiments based in the city of Recife started a tradition of parading during the Carnival.

Since the Carnival is originally linked to religion, they played religious procession marches and martial music, as well. A couple of regiments had famous bands which attracted lots of followers and it was just a matter of time to people start to compare one to another and cheer for their favorite bands.

The two most famous bands were the Espanha meaning Spain , whose conductor was of Spanish origin, and the 14 , from the 14th regiment. The bands started to compete with each other and also started playing faster and faster, louder and louder.

Soon, the artists became oblivious to the derogatory origins of the term and started taking advantage of it.

With the media pushing it forward, the soundtrack of Carnival in Salvador quickly spread over the country through off-season Carnival shindigs , strengthening its industrial potentials and producing year-round hits along the 90s.

The Brazilian Carnival Parades were first broadcast in the late s on television on Rede Globo , which brought the Rio celebrations live, bringing the celebrations to more people all over the nation.

Now defunct, Rede Manchete broadcast the event on several occasions and mounted a joint broadcast with Globo for the event.

Until , fans of the samba schools on parade also expected to watch a short preview of the performances of the schools involved to be broadcast during the duration of the event.

By lyric video style adverts appeared in their place, complete with the colours of the competing schools in attendance, featuring the lyrics of the songs to be performed by the schools.

The Rio parade can also be heard on radio and seen via online streaming as well thru TVG Rio and from in G1, which offers an online live streaming of the victory parade.

The Carnivals of Recife and Salvador are shown by Band since the early s, and Band also holds broadcast rights for the victory parade. Both fall under the Band Folia brand.

Since , Globo also has its own broadcast team and crew for the broadcasts of the late night Galo da Madrugada in Recife. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Annual festival in Brazil. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.

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Rio's carnival is the largest in the world according to Guinness World Records. Main article: Rio Carnival.

Main article: Bahian Carnival. Main articles: Samba and Samba Brazilian dance. Guinness World Records. Retrieved 11 February Online Etymology Dictionary.

Retrieved 4 June Archived from the original on 8 March Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 20 November

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